Special Examinations—Breast, Genital, Prostate, and Rectal
One critical element of any physical exam is the ability of the examiner to put the patient at ease. By putting the patient at ease, nurses are more likely to glean quality, meaningful information that will help the patient get the best care possible. When someone feels safe, listened to, and cared about, exams often go more smoothly. This is especially true when dealing with issues concerning breasts, genitals, prostates, and rectums, which are subjects that many patients find difficult to talk about. As a result, it is important to gain a firm understanding of how to gain vital information and perform the necessary assessment techniques in as non-invasive a manner as possible.
In final preparation for this week’s head-to-toe physical examination, you explore how to assess problems with the breasts, genitalia, rectum, and prostate.
- Evaluate abnormal findings on the genitalia and rectum
- Apply concepts, theories, and principles relating to health assessment techniques and diagnoses for the breasts, genitalia, prostate, and rectum
- Assess health conditions based on a head-to-toe physical examination
Patients are frequently uncomfortable discussing with health care professional’s issues that involve the genitalia and rectum; however, gathering an adequate history and properly conducting a physical exam are vital. Examining case studies of genital and rectal abnormalities can help prepare advanced practice nurses to accurately assess patients with problems in these areas.
In this assignment, you will consider case studies that describe abnormal findings in patients seen in a clinical setting.
In this assignment, you will analyze a SOAP note case study that describes abnormal findings in patients seen in a clinical setting. You will consider what history should be collected from the patients, as well as which physical exams and diagnostic tests should be conducted. You will also formulate a differential diagnosis with several possible conditions.
- CC: “I have bumps on my bottom that I want to have checked out.”
- HPI: AB, a 21-year-old WF college student reports to your clinic with external bumps on her genital area. She states the bumps are painless and feel rough. She states she is sexually active and has had more than one partner over the past year. Her initial sexual contact occurred at age 18. She reports no abnormal vaginal discharge. She is unsure how long the bumps have been there but noticed them about a week ago. Her last Pap smear exam was 3 years ago, and no dysplasia was found; the exam results were normal. She reports one sexually transmitted infection (chlamydia) about 2 years ago. She completed the treatment for chlamydia as prescribed.
- PMH: Asthma
- Medications: Symbicort 160/4.5mcg
- Allergies: NKDA
- FH: No hx of breast or cervical cancer, Father hx HTN, Mother hx HTN, GERD
- Social: Denies tobacco use; occasional etoh, married, 3 children (1 girl, 2 boys)
- VS: Temp 98.6; BP 120/86; RR 16; P 92; HT 5’10”; WT 169lbs
- Heart: RRR, no murmurs
- Lungs: CTA, chest wall symmetrical
- Genital: Normal female hair pattern distribution; no masses or swelling. Urethral meatus intact without erythema or discharge. Perineum intact with a healed episiotomy scar present. Vaginal mucosa pink and moist with rugae present, pos for firm, round, small, painless ulcer noted on external labia
- Abd: soft, normoactive bowel sounds, neg rebound, neg murphy’s, neg McBurney
- Diagnostics: HSV specimen obtained
- PLAN: This section is not required for the assignments in this course (NURS 6512) but will be required for future courses.
With regard to the SOAP note case study provided:
- Review this week’s Learning Resources, and consider the insights they provide about the case study.
- Consider what history would be necessary to collect from the patient in the case study.
- Consider what physical exams and diagnostic tests would be appropriate to gather more information about the patient’s condition. How would the results be used to make a diagnosis?
- Identify at least five possible conditions that may be considered in a differential diagnosis for the patient.
Refer to Chapter 5 of the Sullivan text. Analyze the SOAP note case study. Using evidence-based resources, answer the following questions and support your answers using current evidence from the literature.
- Analyze the subjective portion of the note. List additional information that should be included in the documentation.
- Analyze the objective portion of the note. List additional information that should be included in the documentation.
- Is the assessment supported by the subjective and objective information? Why or Why not?
- Would diagnostics be appropriate for this case and how would the results be used to make a diagnosis?
- Would you reject/accept the current diagnosis? Why or why not? Identify three possible conditions that may be considered as a differential diagnosis for this patient. Explain your reasoning using at least 3 different references from current evidence-based literature.